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Michael Graziano scan for contact information

Zoom Presenter Help Tips

  • Get a free account and TEST, TEST, TEST!

  • Have a hotspot backup on the ready (for example your phone)

Bandwidth requirements

The bandwidth used by Zoom will be optimized for the best experience based on the participant‘s’ network. It will automatically adjust for 3G, WiFi, or wired environments.

Recommended bandwidth for meetings and webinar panelists:

  • For 1:1 video calling:

    • 600kbps (up/down) for high-quality video

    • 1.2Mbps (up/down) for 720p HD video

    • Receiving 1080p HD video requires 1.8Mbps (up/down)

    • Sending 1080p HD video requires 1.8Mbps (up/down)

  • For group video calling:

    • 800kbps/1.0 Mbps (up/down) for high-quality video

    • For gallery view and/or 720p HD video: 1.5Mbps/1.5Mbps (up/down)

    • Receiving 1080p HD video requires 2.5Mbps (up/down)

    • Sending 1080p HD video requires 3.0Mbps (up/down)

  • For screen sharing only (no video thumbnail): 50-75kbps

  • For screen sharing with  video thumbnail: 50-150kbps

  • For audio VoiP: 60-80kbps

  • For Zoom Phone: 60-100kbps

Recommended bandwidth for webinar attendees:

  • For 1:1 video calling: 600kbps (down) for high-quality video and 1.2Mbps (down) for HD video

  • For screen sharing only (no video thumbnail): 50-75kbps (down)

  • For screen sharing with video thumbnail: 50-150kbps (down)

  • For audio VoiP: 60-80kbps (down)

Check Your Equipment

Make sure you check all your technical equipment to see if everything is working properly. This will help minimize issues like awkward camera angles or a malfunctioning microphone.

Here are a few things you should take care of before your presentation:

  • Check internet connection. No one wants to listen to a presenter with laggy audio and video. Use a reliable, high-speed internet connection to ensure a smooth Zoom presentation.

  • Test audio and video. Check if your camera and microphone are working properly by joining a Zoom test meeting. You can also test out your equipment from inside the Zoom app by clicking on Settings → Audio or Settings → Video.

  • Ensure your laptop is plugged in. Imagine if your laptop dies out in the middle of your presentation just because you didn’t plug it in properly. Don’t let that happen.

  • Adjust your camera level. Make sure your audience is looking at your face instead of the top of your head. Decide whether you want to sit or stand during your presentation, and adjust the webcam so it’s at eye level.

  • Put the phone on silent mode.

  • Be mindful of your background and background noise.

Keep in mind that technical issues can arise unexpectedly, even if you do everything right. Doing tech prep beforehand, though, keeps the chances at a minimum.

Make sure you check all your technical equipment to see if everything is working properly. This will help minimize issues like awkward camera angles or a malfunctioning microphone.

VPN Services to help stay anonymouss

All researchers and online investigators should use some kind of VPN service.  Some reasons include:

     If you are working from home or your office and going to sites that track an IP address.

      You want to see how sites react and how your searches are different from different locations.

I recommend a paid service, and there are many out there, like Hide Your Ass and IP Vanish.  You should do your own review and see which service best fits your needs.

While there are things like Tor that are free just be advised that the connections can be slow, some websites and service will not let you access them their service through Tor and the fact that your endpoint could be monitored and captured without your knowledge.

Virtual Machines

VM's are computers that operate inside of your computer and depending on the settings can be used to sandbox an investigation.  These are good investigative tools as you can have multiple computers independent of each other and also lessen the likely hood of malware.  Used with a good VPN product you can conduct investigations on one computer like you have several different computers.

Also with such a setup you can investigate a single case with no cross-contamination and use a fresh setup clone master VM to go on to the next case.

Virtual Box - is a free VM solution.  You will need an OS to install drive to install your operating system.

Mac Keyboard Shortcuts

Mac OS keyboard shortcuts.  Click on the image for a larger view and CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AS PDF..

mac keyboard shortcuts

Get Facebook ID for a Subpoena

Facebook id search image

Useful for sending out a subpoena request.

What's my current IP address?

While there are many services that you can go to and find the current public facing IP address that you are using.  The one I like and is easy to remember is:​



ip chicken search icon

General Rec

A guide to a general rec for submission of devices or online accounts.

Download editable word document HERE

WHOIS Lookups

Widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address


WHOIS search online image
search online for domain information


This is a simple guide on how to read the full email headers from an email message in various email clients.

Headers include such details as the sender, recipient, subject, sending time stamp, receiving time stamps, and more. 

Mail by (mt)

Log into Mail by (mt) webmail client.
Click the message preview in either two- or three-pane view to read the full message.
Click the down arrow in the upper right corner and select View Header.

Mail headers search image

Mail by (mt) / @Mail

Log into Atmail - Advanced (Mozilla).
Double-click to open the email message.
Click on the "View Headers" icon in the top menu. The icon is an envelope in front of a piece of paper.

Horde Webmail

Log into Horde Webmail.
Open the email message.
Click the "Message Source" link in the text menu at the top of the message.
A new window, with the full message and headers, will open.


Apple Mail

Open Apple Mail.
Select the desired message.
Click on View >> Message >> Raw Source.

Mail search headers apple mail

Outlook 2018 for Mac

Open Outlook 2018.
Select the desired email message.
Press Control+Click >> View Source.

Mail search headers outlook 2018

Outlook 2010   Support for Office 2010 ended on October 13, 2020, and there will be no extension and no extended security updates.

Open Outlook 2010.
Select the email message for which you'd like to view the headers.
Click on File

Outlook main headers
Outlook mail headers
Mail header information

Current Outlook Program

Open Outlook

Click on the message

Click on File

Click on Properties

Mail file properties image
Mail properties
Mail properties

Outlook Express
Open Outlook Express.
Right-click on the message and select Properties.
Choose the Details tab and select the Message Source Button.

Microsoft Entourage
Open Entourage.
Double-click to open the email message.
Select View from the menu and click on Internet Headers.
You may need to use your mouse to pull down on the line below the header so that the entire header is visible.

Mozilla Thunderbird
Open Thunderbird.
Double-click to open the email message.
From the menu bar, select View > Headers then choose All.
The headers should be immediately displayed.


Log into Gmail.
Open the message.
Click the down arrow next to Reply, at the top-right of the message pane.
Select Show original.
The full headers will appear in a new window.

Log into Yahoo webmail.
Open the message.
Click Full Headers at the top of your message.
The full headers will appear above the message text.

MSN Hotmail
Log into MSN Hotmail.
Click into your Inbox.
Hover (do NOT click) over the email for which you want to see the headers.
Right-click to get a new menu of options.
Choose the "View message source" option.
Now, the full headers for the email you were hovering on will be displayed.

Windows Live Hotmail
Log into Windows Live Hotmail.
Click on the desired message in the list with the right mouse button.
Select View source from the menu.


The easiest way for finding the original sender is by looking for the X-Originating-IP header. This header is important since it tells you the IP address of the computer that had sent the email. If you cannot find the X-Originating-IP header, then you will have to sift through the Received headers to find the sender's IP address. 

Once the email sender's IP address is found, you can search for it at You should now be given results letting you know to which ISP (Internet Service Provider) or WebHost the IP address belongs. 

Finding original sender
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